Glossary terms

List of terms used in taxonomy "glossary".
Click on term name to access articles associated with that term

Term Name Term description

Literally "our father." Orthodox, Catholic and Anglican addressed.


culture, or literature


Public call to prayer done five times day.

Ahl al-dhimmah

Free non-Muslim community that pay jizyah in exchange.

ahl al-Fatrah


everyone whom the message of Islam has not yet reached


Ahl al-Hal w al-ʿAqd

Influential and learned elder people in Islam

Ahl al-kitāb

“People of the Book.” Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

Ahl al-Qurʾān

Group accepting only the authority of the Qur’an.

Akh al-ʿamal

Working brother (the highest rank of membership within the Muslim Brotherhood)

Āl al-Bayt

“The people of the house of the Prophet.”

al-Bahā’ al-Aʿzam

Title for founder of Bahā’ī faith.


Affirmation of the literal truth in Islam


A criteria of hadith evaluation referring to the precision in memorization and writing of the muhaddith.

al-Islām al-Ḥaḍārī

al-Islām al-Ḥaḍārī (Civilisational Islam) is a concept that aims to combine Islamic / Qur'anic Law and the modern State to establish the Qur'an as the basis for political and social action

Al-Isrā’ wa-al-Miʿrāj

Miraculous night journey [al-isrā’] of the Prophet Muhammad.

Al-Jamʿiyah al-Sharʿiyah

An Islamic NGO

al-jarḥ wa al-taʿdīl

The process of, literally "accrediting" and "discrediting" by which Islamic scholars evaluate hadith.


The most important Shiite book on ḥadīth.

Al-khat al-hamāyūny [Hamāyūny Decree]

Al-khat al-hamāyūny is a clause in the Egyptian law that dates back to  1856 issued during Ottoman rule, which regulates Christian church construction.


members of a group that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad. It broke into revolt against the authority of the Rashidun Caliph Ali after he agreed to arbitration with his rival, Muawiyah I, to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657). A Khariji later assassinated Ali, and for hundreds of years, the Khawarij were a source of insurrection against the Caliphate.


Palestinan refugees of 1948

al-Madina Document
Al-Mar'ah wa-alJjins, (Women and Sex)

Nawāl al-Saʿdāwī 


unrestricted interests 

al-Mawlid al-Nabawīy

Celebration commemorating the birthday of the Prophet.


The person that calls for prayer


Ummayad and Abbassid era school of Islamic thought which emphasized reason and rational thought in approaching Islamic theology. The movement was centered around Basra and Baghdad.


Palestinian refugees of 1967 (Jordanian point of view: those who fled during and in the aftermath of the 1967 war; Israeli point of view: those who fled just within the six days of the war)

Al-Salāmu ’alaykum wa raḥmatu ’Allāhi wa Barakātuh

Lit: literalist. School of thought that rejects qiyas.


Criteria for evaluating hadith narrators (muhaddith) based on their morality and decorum.

al-‘Āshira Masā’

Arabic term for “One God.” all monotheistic religions.


Title prince/leader Islamic group chosen by election.


Title of bishop/saint in Coptic Orthodox Church


another word for unclean, who are insulting for the Prophet Muhammad

arkān al-Islām/ arkān al-dīn (Five Pillars of Islam)
Āyat Allāh

Title of major Shīcah clergymen - “sign of God.”


Religion, Persia 1863, emphasizing spiritual unity of humankind.


Coptic dialect 


The balṭagīya, Baltageya in Egyptian dialect, is a term to refer to a group of mainly men who gather to attack people during demonstrations in order to produce turmoil. During the Arab spring demonstrations and in the aftermath balṭagīya were used - most presumably by both the state and different lobby groups -  to influence the dynamics of demonstrations, to (sexually) threaten women in order to prevent them from participating and to accuse  the respectively other side of inciting violence.  

Bayt al-māl

Muslim's treasury during the reign of Islamic caliphs.

Bayt al-Ṭāʿah

Outdated, husband’s house, woman return, cases unlawful desertion.


Allegiance to Islamic political system/Islamic Caliphate.