9. Egypt and the Civil State

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Rif‘at says that Egypt had been stripped of its identity by the constant occupation it has suffered for 1800 years, until Muhammad ‘Alī Pasha put down the foundations of a civil state wherein Muslim and Copts would be equal, which his successors built on. He says that if Egypt fails to deal with the current sectarian tension, it could end up destroying what was built.

Key Words: Muhammad ‘Alī Pasha – Rafā‘ah al-Tahtāwī – Sa‘d Zaghlūl


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