Dr. Ḥassan Muḥammad Wajīh attempts to analyze some controversial political contexts,
particularly the concept of citizenship. The objective of such analysis, according to Wajīh, is not merely to
define these concepts central to the current events accompanying the amendments to the Egyptian Constitution. The
author believes that such analysis is crucial to the systematic understanding of major political, cultural, national,
and international transformations. Wajīh first approaches the concept of religious and secular states. The
author points out that if a community values religion, this in turn makes it a religious state. However, if religion
is regarded as an individual value that is not brought to the center of community, this makes the state a civil or a
secular one. Wajīh believes that such concepts should go beyond this dichotomy, especially within the Islamic
Arab culture, where religion plays a more central role than it does in other cultures.
The author then argues
that the Egyptian Constitution should reconcile between all these concepts in order to achieve equality and fraternity
among all members of the Egyptian community. He recommends that researchers and experts make use of previous and
recent studies and analyses of central concepts in order to achieve the desired goals of political reform. He adds
that, through these constitutional reforms, Egypt would be able to restore its Arab and regional role. He finally says
that Egypt has always been the country of justice and equality that unites faith and knowledge.